Welcome to the **GATE 2024 Syllabus!** This platform serves as your comprehensive guide to the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) for the year 2024. Navigate through the tailored syllabus meticulously crafted for each engineering and science discipline, providing you with a roadmap for effective exam preparation. Whether you’re aspiring for postgraduate studies in premier institutions or eyeing opportunities in top Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs), our detailed stream-wise syllabus ensures that you are well-equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to ace the GATE 2024 examination. Dive into your specific field of interest and explore the topics that will shape your success in this prestigious examination. Let your GATE journey begin here!

**Read:** **Gate 2024: Eligibility | Important Dates | Exam Pattern | Marking Scheme**

#### 4^{TH} JANUARY, 2024 | ADMIT CARD AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

**GATE 2024 Syllabus Stream wise:**

**1. Civil Engineering 2024 Syllabus**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics:**

**Linear Algebra:**Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.**Calculus:**Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima; Taylor series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities; Directional derivatives; Line, Surface and Volume integrals.**Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE):**First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; initial and boundary value problems.**Partial Differential Equation (PDE):**Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of onedimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.**Probability and Statistics:**Sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Descriptive statistics – Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random Variables – Discrete and Continuous, Poisson and Normal Distribution; Linear regression.**Numerical Methods:**Error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials; numerical differentiation; Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; Single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

**Section 2: Structural Engineering:**

**Engineering Mechanics:**System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Frictions and its applications; Centre of mass; Free Vibrations of undamped SDOF system.**Solid Mechanics:**Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, Transformation of stress; buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.**Structural Analysis:**Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.**Construction Materials and Management:**Construction Materials: Structural Steel – Composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – Constituents, mix design, shortterm and long-term properties. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM; Cost estimation.**Concrete Structures:**Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete beams.**Steel Structures:**Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Concept of plastic analysis – beams and frames.

**Section 3: Geotechnical Engineering:**

**Soil Mechanics:**Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Seepage through soils – two – dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity, seepage force; Principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; Compaction of soils; Onedimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Shear Strength, Mohr’s circle, effective and total shear strength parameters, Stress-Strain characteristics of clays and sand; Stress paths.**Foundation Engineering:**Sub-surface investigations – Drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – Finite and infinite slopes, Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s theory; Pressure bulbs, Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – dynamic and static formulae, Axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction.

**Section 4: Water Resources Engineering:**

**Fluid Mechanics:**Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; Potential flow, Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth; Concept of lift and drag.**Hydraulics:**Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow, gradually varied flow and water surface profiles.**Hydrology:**Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s Law.**Irrigation:**Types of irrigation systems and methods; Crop water requirements – Duty, delta, evapo-transpiration; Gravity Dams and Spillways; Lined and unlined canals, Design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures.

**Section 5: Environmental Engineering:**

**Water and Waste Water Quality and Treatment:**Basics of water quality standards – Physical, chemical and biological parameters; Water quality index; Unit processes and operations; Water requirement; Water distribution system; Drinking water treatment.- Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Effluent discharge standards; Sludge disposal; Reuse of treated sewage for different applications.
**Air Pollution:**Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, Air quality Index and limits.**Municipal Solid Wastes:**Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

**Section 6: Transportation Engineering:**

**Transportation Infrastructure:**Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments.**Geometric design of railway Track:**Speed and Cant.- Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design.
**Highway Pavements:**Highway materials – desirable properties and tests; Desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible and rigid pavement using IRC codes**Traffic Engineering:**Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Traffic signs; Signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections; Highway capacity.

**Section 7: Geomatics Engineering:**

**Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps:**scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.**Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing:**Scale, flying height; Basics of remote sensing and GIS.

**2. Mechanical Engineering 2024 Syllabus**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics:**

**Linear Algebra:**Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors.**Calculus:**Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes and Green’s theorems.**Differential equations:**First order equations (linear and nonlinear); higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equation; initial and boundary value problems; Laplace transforms; solutions of heat, wave and Laplace’s equations.**Complex variables:**Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.**Probability and Statistics:**Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.**Numerical Methods:**Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Section 2: Applied Mechanics and Design:**

**Engineering Mechanics:**Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; friction and its applications including rolling friction, belt-pulley, brakes, clutches, screw jack, wedge, vehicles, etc.; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; Lagrange’s equation.**Mechanics of Materials:**Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson’s ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; concept of shear centre; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength.**Theory of Machines:**Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.**Vibrations:**Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts.**Machine Design:**Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches, springs.

**Section 3: Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences:**

**Fluid Mechanics:**Fluid properties; fluid statics, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends and fittings; basics of compressible fluid flow.**Heat-Transfer:**Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler’s charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, Stefan- Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis**Thermodynamics:**Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behavior of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.**Applications:**Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Air-standard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines; steam and gas turbines.

**Section 4: Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering:**

**Engineering Materials:**Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.**Casting, Forming and Joining Processes:**Different types of castings, design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design. Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding.**Machining and Machine Tool Operations:**Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, jigs and fixtures; abrasive machining processes; NC/CNC machines and CNC programming.**Metrology and Inspection:**Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly; concepts of coordinate-measuring machine (CMM).**Computer Integrated Manufacturing:**Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools; additive manufacturing.**Production Planning and Control:**Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning; lean manufacturing.**Inventory Control:**Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems.**Operations Research:**Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

**3. Electrical Engineering 2024 Syllabus**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics:**

**Linear Algebra:**Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values, Eigen vectors**Calculus:**Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line integral, Surface integral, Volume integral, Stokes’s theorem, Gauss’s theorem, Divergence theorem, Green’s theorem.**Differential equations:**First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s equation, Euler’s equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.**Complex variables:**Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals.**Probability and Statistics:**Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis.

**Section 2: Electric circuits:**

**Network elements:**ideal voltage and current sources, dependent sources, R, L, C, M elements; Network solution methods: KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis;**Network Theorems:**Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorem; Transient response of dc and ac networks, sinusoidal steady-state analysis, resonance, two port networks, balanced three phase circuits, star-delta transformation, complex power and power factor in ac circuits.

**Section 3: Electromagnetic Fields:**

Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot-Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

**Section 4: Signals and Systems:**

Representation of continuous and discrete time signals, shifting and scaling properties, linear time invariant and causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous and discrete time periodic signals, sampling theorem, Applications of Fourier Transform for continuous and discrete time signals, Laplace Transform and Z transform. R.M.S. value, average value calculation for any general periodic waveform

**Section 5: Electrical Machines:**

**Single phase transformer:**equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency;**Three-phase transformers:**connections, vector groups, parallel operation; Auto-transformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles;**DC machines:**separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, speed control of dc motors;**Three-phase induction machines:**principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked-rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle of single-phase induction motors;**Synchronous machines:**cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance and characteristics, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motors; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines

**Section 6: Power Systems:**

Basic concepts of electrical power generation, ac and dc transmission concepts, Models and performance of transmission lines and cables, Economic Load Dispatch (with and without considering transmission losses), Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution and insulators, Distribution systems, Per- unit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, Gauss- Seidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency control, Power factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, Principles of over-current, differential, directional and distance protection; Circuit breakers, System stability concepts, Equal area criterion.

**Section 7: Control Systems:**

Mathematical modelling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer function, Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs, Transient and Steady- state analysis of linear time invariant systems, Stability analysis using RouthHurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, Root loci, Lag, Lead and Lead-Lag compensators; P, PI and PID controllers; State space model, Solution of state equations of LTI systems

**Section 8: Electrical and Electronic Measurements:**

Bridges and Potentiometers, Measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; Instrument transformers, Digital voltmeters and multi-meters, Phase, Time and Frequency measurement; Oscilloscopes, Error analysis.

**Section 9: Analog and Digital Electronics:**

**Simple diode circuits:**clipping, clamping, rectifiers;**Amplifiers:**biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers;**Amplifiers:**characteristics and applications; single stage active filters, Active Filters: Sallen Key, Butterwoth, VCOs and timers, combinatorial and sequential logic circuits, multiplexers, demultiplexers, Schmitt triggers, sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters.

**Section 10: Power Electronics:**

Static V-I characteristics and firing/gating circuits for Thyristor, MOSFET, IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost Converters; Single and threephase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers; Voltage and Current commutated Thyristor based converters; Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters; Magnitude and Phase of line current harmonics for uncontrolled and thyristor based converters; Power factor and Distortion Factor of ac to dc converters; Single-phase and three-phase voltage and current source inverters, sinusoidal pulse width modulation.

**4. Electronics & Communication Engineering 2024 Syllabus**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics:**

**Linear Algebra:**Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, Eigen values and eigen vectors, rank, solution of linear equations- existence and uniqueness.**Calculus:**Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.**Differential Equations:**First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.**Vector Analysis:**Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss’s, Green’s and Stokes’ theorems.**Complex Analysis:**Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, sequences, series, convergence tests, Taylor and Laurent series, residue theorem.**Probability and Statistics:**Mean, median, mode, standard deviation, combinatorial probability, probability distributions, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, exponential distribution, normal distribution, joint and conditional probability.

**Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems:**

**Circuit analysis:**and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, reciprocity. Sinusoidal steady state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer. Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform.

Linear 2-port network parameters, wye-delta transformation.**Continuous-time signals:**Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications.**Discrete-time signals:**DTFT, DFT, z-transform, discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals. LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay.

**Section 3: Electronic Devices:**

- Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect band-gap semiconductors.
**Carrier transport:**diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations. P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell.

**Section 4: Analog Circuits:**

**Diode circuits:**clipping, clamping and rectifiers.**BJT and MOSFET amplifiers:**biasing, ac coupling, small signal analysis, frequency response.

Current mirrors and differential amplifiers.**Op-amp circuits:**Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers and oscillators.

**Section 5: Digital Circuits:**

**Number representations:**binary, integer and floating-point- numbers.**Combinatorial circuits:**Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders.**Sequential circuits:**latches and flip-flops, counters, shift-registers, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay.**Data converters:**sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs.**Semiconductor memories:**ROM, SRAM, DRAM.**Computer organization:**Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data-path and control unit, instruction pipelining.

**Section 6: Control Systems:**

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

**Section 7: Communications:**

**Random processes:**auto correlation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems.**Analog communications:**modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, super heterodyne receivers.**Information theory:**entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem.**Digital communications:**PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, inter-symbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR and BER.- Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC.

**Section 8: Electromagnetics:**

**Maxwell’s equations:**differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector.**Plane waves and properties:**reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth.**Transmission lines:**equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart.- Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.

**5. Computer Science & Information Technology 2024 Syllabus**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics:**

**Discrete Mathematics:**Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Monoids, Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.**Linear Algebra:**Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.**Calculus:**Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.**Complex variables:**Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.**Probability and Statistics:**Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

Computer Science and Information Technology

**Section 2: Digital Logic:**

Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

**Section 3: Computer Organization and Architecture:**

Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data-path and control unit. Instruction pipelining, pipeline hazards. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

**Section 4: Programming and Data Structures:**

Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

**Section 5: Algorithms:**

Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide-and-conquer. Graph traversals, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths

**Section 6: Theory of Computation:**

Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

**Section 7: Compiler Design:**

Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation. Local optimisation, Data flow analyses: constant propagation, liveness analysis, common sub expression elimination.

**Section 8: Operating System:**

System calls, processes, threads, inter-process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU and I/O scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

**Section 9: Databases:**

**ER-model. Relational model:** relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

**Section 10: Computer Networks:**

**Concept of layering:** OSI and TCP/IP Protocol Stacks; Basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuit-switching; Data link layer: framing, error detection, Medium Access Control, Ethernet bridging; Routing protocols: shortest path, flooding, distance vector and link state routing; Fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation, Basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), Network Address Translation (NAT); Transport layer: flow control and congestion control, UDP, TCP, sockets; Application layer protocols: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP, Email.

**6. Instrumentation Engineering 2024 Syllabus**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics:**

**Linear Algebra:**Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, consistency and rank, Eigenvalue and Eigenvectors.**Calculus:**Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.**Differential equations:**First order equation (linear and nonlinear), second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.**Analysis of complex variables:**Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.**Probability and Statistics:**Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, standard deviation and variance; random variables: discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.**Numerical Methods:**Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.

**Section 2: Electricity and Magnetism:**

Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot-Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

**Section 3: Electrical Circuits and Machines:**

**Voltage and current sources:**independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductance and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation.- Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems.
- Peak- average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. transient analysis of RLC circuits with ac excitation.
- One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit parameters.
**Single phase transformer:**equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines.

**Section 4: Signals and Systems:**

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

**Section 5: Control Systems:**

Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators, state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, PI, PID, cascade, feed forward, and ratio controllers, tuning of PID controllers and sizing of control valves.

**Section 6: Analog Electronics:**

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of ideal and practical operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, difference amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters, oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop, sources and effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits.

**Section 7: Digital Electronics:**

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-to-digital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigma-delta) and digital-to-analog converters (weighted R, R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, Embedded Systems: Microprocessor and microcontroller applications, memory and input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems, basics of distributed control systems (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC).

**Section 8: Measurements:**

SI units, standards (R, L, C, voltage, current and frequency), systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty – accuracy and precision, propagation of errors, linear and weighted regression. Bridges: Wheatstone, Kelvin, Megohm, Maxwell, Anderson, Schering and Wien for measurement of R, L, C and frequency, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

**Section 9: Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation:**

Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (variable head, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement. 4-20 mA two-wire transmitter.

**Section 10: Communication and Optical Instrumentation:**

Amplitude- and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, quadrature amplitude, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent resistor, square law detectors and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing. UV-VIS Spectrophotometers, Mass spectrometer.

**7. Production & Industrial Engineering 2024 Syllabus**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics:**

**Linear Algebra:**Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.**Calculus:**Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives; Line, Surface and Volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.**Differential Equations:**First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms.**Complex variables:**Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.**Probability and Statistics:**Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Linear regression, Random variables, Poisson, normal, binomial and exponential distributions.**Numerical Methods:**Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules, Single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Section 2: General Engineering:**

**Engineering Materials:**Structure, physical and mechanical properties, and applications of common engineering materials (metals and alloys, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, and composites – metal, polymer and ceramic based); Iron-carbon equilibrium phase diagram; Heat treatment of metals and alloys and its influence on mechanical properties; Stress-strain behavior of metals and alloys.**Applied Mechanics:**Engineering mechanics – equivalent force systems, free body concepts, equations of equilibrium; Trusses; Strength of materials – stress, strain and their relationship; Failure theories; Mohr’s circle (stress); Deflection of beams, bending and shear stresses; Euler’s theory of columns; Thick and thin cylinders; Torsion.**Theory of Machines and Design:**Analysis of planar mechanisms, cams and followers; Governors and fly wheels; Design of bolted, riveted and welded joints; Interference/shrink fit joints; Friction and lubrication; Design of shafts, keys, couplings, spur gears, belt drives, brakes and clutches; Pressure vessels.**Thermal and Fluids Engineering:**Fluid mechanics – fluid statics, Bernoulli’s equation, flow through pipes, laminar and turbulent flows, equations of continuity and momentum, capillary action; Dimensional analysis; Thermodynamics – zeroth, first and second laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic systems and processes, calculation of work and heat for systems and control volumes; Air standard cycles; Heat transfer – basic applications of conduction, convection and radiation.

**Section 3: Manufacturing Processes I:**

**Casting:**Types of casting processes and applications; Sand casting: patterns – types, materials and allowances; molds and cores–materials, making, and testing; design of gating system and riser; casting techniques of cast iron, steels, and nonferrous metals and alloys; analysis of solidification and microstructure development; Other casting techniques: Pressure die casting, Centrifugal casting, Investment casting, Shell mold casting; Casting defects and their inspection by non-destructive testing.**Metal Forming:**Stress-strain relations in elastic and plastic deformation; von Mises and Tresca yield criteria, Concept of flow stress; Hot, warm and cold working; Bulk forming processes – forging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing; Sheet metal working processes – blanking, punching, bending, stretch forming, spinning and deep drawing; Ideal work and slab analysis; Defects in metal working and their causes.**Joining of Materials:**Classification of joining processes; Principles of fusion welding processes using different heat sources (flame, arc, resistance, laser, electron beam), Heat transfer and associated losses; Arc welding processes – SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, plasma arc, submerged arc welding processes; Principles of solid state welding processes – friction welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding; Welding defects – causes and inspection; Principles of adhesive joining, brazing and soldering processes.**Powder Processing:**Production of metal/ceramic powders, compaction and sintering of metals and ceramic powders, Cold and hot isostatic pressing.**Polymers and Composites:**Polymer processing – injection, compression and blow molding, extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming; Molding of composites.

**Section 4: Manufacturing Processes II:**

**Machining:**Orthogonal and oblique machining, Single point cutting tool and tool signature, Chip formation, cutting forces, Merchant’s analysis, Specific cutting energy and power; Machining parameters and material removal rate; tool materials, Tool wear and tool life; Thermal aspects of machining, cutting fluids, machinability; Economics of machining; Machining processes – turning, taper turning, thread cutting, drilling, boring, milling, gear cutting, thread production; Finishing processes – grinding, honing, lapping and super-finishing.**Machine Tools:**Lathe, milling, drilling and shaping machines – construction and kinematics; Jigs and fixtures – principles, applications, and design.**Advanced Manufacturing:**Principles and applications of USM, AJM, WJM, AWJM, EDM and Wire EDM, LBM, EBM, PAM, CHM, ECM; Effect of process parameters on material removal rate, surface roughness and power consumption; Additive manufacturing techniques.**Computer Integrated Manufacturing:**Basic concepts of CAD and CAM, Geometric modeling, CNC; Automation in Manufacturing; Industrial Robots – configurations, drives and controls; Cellular manufacturing and FMS – Group Technology, CAPP.

**Section 5: Quality and Reliability:**

**Metrology and Inspection:**Accuracy and precision; Types of errors; Limits, fits and tolerances; Gauge design, Interchangeability, Selective assembly; Linear, angular, and form measurements (straightness, flatness, roundness, runout and cylindricity) by mechanical and optical methods; Inspection of screw threads and gears; Surface roughness measurement by contact and non-contact methods.**Quality Management:**Quality – concept and costs; Statistical quality control – process capability analysis, control charts for variables and attributes and acceptance sampling; Six sigma; Total quality management; Quality assurance and certification – ISO 9000, ISO14000.**Reliability and Maintenance:**Reliability, availability and maintainability; Distribution of failure and repair times; Determination of MTBF and MTTR, Reliability models; Determination of system reliability; Preventive and predictive maintenance and replacement, Total productive maintenance.

**Section 6: Industrial Engineering:**

**Product Design and Development:**Principles of product design, tolerance design; Quality and cost considerations; Product life cycle; Standardization, simplification, diversification; Value engineering and analysis; Concurrent engineering; Design for “X”.**Work System Design:**Taylor’s scientific management, Gilbreths’s contributions; Productivity – concepts and measurements; Method study, Micro-motion study, Principles of motion economy; Work measurement – time study, Work sampling, Standard data, PMTS; Ergonomics; Job evaluation and merit rating.**Facility Design:**Facility location factors and evaluation of alternate locations; Types of plant layout and their evaluation; Computer aided layout design techniques; Assembly line balancing; Materials handling systems.

**Section 7: Operations research and Operations management:**

**Operation Research:**Linear programming – problem formulation, simplex method, duality and sensitivity analysis; Transportation and assignment models; Integer programming; Constrained and unconstrained nonlinear optimization; Markovian queuing models; Simulation – manufacturing applications.**Engineering Economy and Costing:**Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation; Break-even analysis; Techniques for evaluation of capital investments; Financial statements; Activity based costing.**Production control:**Forecasting techniques – causal and time series models, moving average, exponential smoothing, trend and seasonality; Aggregate production planning; Master production scheduling; MRP, MRP-II and ERP; Routing, scheduling and priority dispatching; Push and pull production systems, concepts of Lean and JIT manufacturing systems; Logistics, distribution, and supply chain management; Inventory – functions, costs, classifications, deterministic inventory models, quantity discount; Perpetual and periodic inventory control systems.**Project management:**Scheduling techniques – Gantt chart, CPM, PERT and GERT.

**8. Data Science & Artificial Intelligence 2024 Syllabus**

GATE New Test Paper on (DA) Data Science and Artificial Intelligence Syllabus:

**Probability and Statistics:**Counting (permutation and combinations), probability axioms, Sample space, events, independent events, mutually exclusive events, marginal, conditional and joint probability, Bayes Theorem, conditional expectation and variance, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, correlation, and covariance, random variables, discrete random variables and probability mass functions, uniform, Bernoulli, binomial distribution, Continuous random variables and probability distribution function, uniform, exponential, Poisson, normal, standard normal, t-distribution, chi-squared distributions, cumulative distribution function, Conditional PDF, Central limit theorem, confidence interval, z-test, t-test, chi-squared test.**Linear Algebra:**Vector space, subspaces, linear dependence and independence of vectors, matrices, projection matrix, orthogonal matrix, idempotent matrix, partition matrix and their properties, quadratic forms, systems of linear equations and solutions; Gaussian elimination, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, determinant, rank, nullity, projections, LU decomposition, singular value decomposition.**Calculus and Optimization:**Functions of a single variable, limit, continuity and diferentiability, Taylor series, maxima and minima, optimization involving a single variable.**Programming, Data Structures and Algorithms:**Programming in Python, basic data structures: stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, hash tables; Search algorithms: linear search and binary search, basic sorting algorithms: selection sort, bubble sort and insertion sort; divide and conquer: mergesort, quicksort; introduction to graph theory; basic graph algorithms: traversals and shortest path.**Database Management and Warehousing:**ER-model, relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL, integrity constraints, normal form, file organization, indexing, data types, data transformation such as normalization, discretization, sampling, compression; data warehouse modelling: schema for multidimensional data models, concept hierarchies, measures: categorization and computations.**Machine Learning****Supervised Learning:**regression and classification problems, simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, ridge regression, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbour, naive Bayes classifier, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, decision trees, bias-variance trade-o?, cross-validation methods such as leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation, k-folds cross- validation, multi-layer perceptron, feed-forward neural network;**Unsupervised Learning:**clustering algorithms, k-means/k-medoid, hierarchical clustering, top-down, bottom-up: single-linkage, multiple- linkage, dimensionality reduction, principal component analysis.**AI:**Search: informed, uninformed, adversarial; logic, propositional, predicate; reasoning under uncertainty topics – conditional independence representation, exact inference through variable elimination, and approximate inference through sampling.

**9. Environmental Science and Engineering 2024 Syllabus**

**Section 1: Mathematics Foundation:**

**Linear Algebra:**and matrices, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors.**Calculus:**Limit, Continuity, Differentiability, Local maxima and minima, Taylor series, Tests for convergence, Definite and indefinite integrals, Application of definite integral to obtain area and volume, Partial and total derivatives.**Differential Equations:**and non-linear first order ordinary differential equations (ODE), Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs.**Probability and Statistics:**statistics, Measurement of central tendency, Dispersion, Skewness and kurtosis, Probability concepts, Conditional probability, Bayes theorem, Risk and reliability, Probability distributions, Correlation, Single and multiple regression models, Hypothesis testing (t-test, Ftest, chi-square test).

**Section 2: Environmental Chemistry:**

**Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry:**Covalent and ionic bonding; Chemical equations, concentration and activity; Structure and chemistry of organic molecules; Radioactivity of elements; Chemical equilibria; Thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions.**Principles of water chemistry:**Water quality parameters and their measurement; Acid-base equilibria; Buffer solution; Carbonate system; Solubility of gases in water; Complexation, precipitation, and redox reactions; Inorganic and organic contaminants in water and their speciation.**Soil chemistry:**Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and sodium absorption ratio.**Atmospheric Chemistry:**Composition of the atmosphere; Reactivity of trace substances in the atmosphere; Urban atmosphere—smog and particulate pollution; Chemistry of ozone formation; Chemistry of stratosphere.

**Section 3: Environmental Microbiology:**

**Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms:**Characteristics of diverse groups of microorganisms; Classification of microorganisms; Microbial diversity; Plant-microbe and soilmicrobe interactions; Role of microorganisms in wastewater treatment, bioremediation and biogeochemical cycling.**Cell chemistry and cell biology:**Structure of proteins, nucleic acid (DNA & RNA), lipids and polysaccharides; Bonds in biomolecules; Stereoisomerism in biomolecules; Structure of cell; Structure and function of cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, outer membrane, glycocalyx, chromosomes, endospores, storage products, mitochondria and chloroplasts.**Microbial metabolism:**Anabolism and catabolism; Phosphorylation; Glycolysis; TCA cycle; Electron transport chain; Fermentation; Anaerobic respiration; Energy balances; Enzymes and Enzyme kinetics.**Growth and control of microorganisms:**Bacterial nutrition and growth; Specific growth rate and doubling time; Monod’s model; Types of culture media; Batch and continuous culture; Effects of environmental factors on growth; Control of microbes using physical and chemical methods.**Microbiology and health:**Pathogens and modes of transmission; Indicator organisms; Quantification of coliforms using MPN and membrane filtration techniques.

**Section 4: Water Resources and Environmental Hydraulics:**

**Global Water Resources:**Properties and distribution of water; Water quality; Threats to water resources; Water conservation.**Surface Water Resources:**Hydrological cycle and water balance – precipitation, infiltration, evapotranspiration, runoff; Flow hydrographs; Unit hydrographs; Stage-discharge relationship; Reservoir capacity; Reservoir and channel routing; Surface run-off models; Surface water management; Rain water harvesting and storage.**Groundwater Resources:**Geologic formations as aquifers; Vadose and saturated zones; Confined and unconfined aquifers and their parameters – porosity, permeability, transmissivity and storage coefficient; Darcy’s law and applications; Steady state well hydraulics.**Environmental Hydraulics:**Concepts of mechanics; Properties of fluids; Pressure measurement; Hydrostatic force on surfaces; Buoyancy and flotation; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow through pipes; Pipe networks; Boundary layer theory; Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Kinematics of flow; Continuity, momentum and energy equations; Channel hydraulics – specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, rapid and gradually varied flow; Design of lined and unlined channels.

**Section 5: Water & Wastewater Treatment and Management:**

**Water and wastewater quality parameters:**Eutrophication and thermal stratification in lakes; River pollution – Oxygen sag curve.**Water treatment methods:**screening, sedimentation with and without coagulation, filtration, desalination, disinfection; Water distribution and storage**Point and non-point sources of wastewater:**Population forecasting methods; Design of sewer and storm water sewers; Sewer appurtenances; Preliminary, primary, secondary and tertiary sewage treatment; Sludge generation, processing and disposal methods; Sewage farming.**Sources and characteristics of industrial effluents:**Concept of Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP); Wastewater recycling and zero liquid discharge.**Kinetics and reactor design:**Mass and energy balance, Order and rate of reactions, Batch reactors, Completely mixed flow reactors, Plug flow reactors.

**Section 6: Air and Noise Pollution:**

**Structure of the atmosphere:**Natural and anthropogenic sources of pollution; Atmospheric sources, sinks, transport; Indoor air pollution; Effects on health and environment; Air pollution: gases and particulate matter; Air quality standards; Primary and secondary pollutants; Criteria pollutants, ambient and source standards, air quality indices, visibility.**Particulate pollutants:**measurement and control methods; Control of particulate air pollutants using gravitational settling chambers, cyclone separators, wet collectors, fabric filters (Baghouse filter), electrostatic precipitators (ESP).**Gaseous Pollutants:**Measurement and control methods; Control of gaseous contaminants: absorption, adsorption, condensation and combustion; Control of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons; Vapour-liquid and vapour-solid equilibria; Diffusion, Fick’s law and interfacial mass transfer.**Automotive emission controls, fuel quality, diesel particulate filters, catalytic convertors.****Air quality management:**Point, line and area sources; Inventory; Influence of meteorology – wind rose diagrams, stability, mixing height, topography, dispersion modelling, monitoring.**Noise pollution:**Sources; Health effects; Standards; Measurement and control methods.

**Section 7: Solid and Hazardous Waste Management:**

**Integrated solid waste management:**Waste hierarchy; Rules and regulations for solid waste management in India**Municipal solid waste management:**Sources, generation, characteristics, collection and transportation, waste processing and disposal (including reuse options, biological methods, energy recovery processes and landfilling).**Hazardous waste management:**Characteristics, generation, fate of materials in the environment, treatment and disposal.**Soil contamination and leaching of contaminants into groundwater****Management of biomedical waste, plastic waste and E-waste:**Sources, generation and characteristics; Waste management practices including storage, collection and transfer.

**Section 8: Global and Regional Environmental Issues:**

**Global effects of air pollution:**Greenhouse gases, global warming, climate change, urban heat islands, acid rain, ozone hole.**Ecology and various ecosystems:**Biodiversity; Factors influencing increase in population, energy consumption, and environmental degradation.

**Section 9: Environmental Management and Sustainable Development:**

**Environmental Management Systems; ISO14000 series; Environmental auditing:**Environmental Impact Assessment; Life cycle assessment; Human health risk assessment**Environmental Law and Policy:**Objectives; Polluter pays principle, Precautionary principle; The Water and Air Acts with amendments; The Environment (Protection) Act (EPA) 1986; National Green Tribunal Act, 2010; National Environment Policy; Principles of International Law and International treaties.**Energy and Environment:**Energy sources – overview of resources and reserves; Renewable and non-renewable energy sources; Energy-Environment nexus.**Sustainable Development:**Definition and concepts of sustainable development; Sustainable development goals; Hurdles to sustainability; Environment and economics.

As you conclude your exploration of the **GATE 2024 Syllabus**, we hope this detailed roadmap has provided you with the clarity and insight needed for your exam preparation journey. The GATE examination serves as a gateway to new academic heights and exciting career opportunities, and our comprehensive syllabus coverage aims to empower you with the knowledge and confidence necessary to navigate the challenges ahead. Remember that each topic outlined here is a stepping stone towards your success, and a thorough understanding will not only help you excel in the examination but also lay the foundation for your future endeavors. Wishing you the very best as you embark on this intellectual journey towards excellence. May your GATE 2024 experience be filled with growth, learning, and ultimately, triumph!

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